Colic Prevention – Introduce Spring Pasture Slowly
Spring is upon us and so is the prevalence of gas colic. Equine Guelph is sharing many strategies to prevent it.
First, Equine Guelph recommends that every horse owner refers to its FREE Colic Risk Rater Tool (www.equineguelph.ca/colictool) to help them assess their management practices, such as introducing new feeds slowly to reduce their colic risk. An excellent video discussing safe introduction to spring pasture with expert in equine nutrition, Don Kapper, has just been added to the valuable resources housed on the Colic Risk Rater web page.
Horse people are generally good about making changes to their horse’s grain rations over a two-week period. It is understood that an increase in grain means an increase in starch that can cause hind gut issues like colic and diarrhea and there is also the risk of laminitis. Pasture is not always thought of in the same way, but it should be! Spring grasses are higher in Non-Structural Carbohydrates, (NSC’s), starch and sugars, like fructan and low in fibre, especially during rapid growth phases.
A sudden increase of fresh spring grass in a horse’s diet can change the pH in the hindgut and cause all sorts of health issues including colic. Spring grass, low in fibre is rapidly fermented, and an overload of starch enters the cecum killing off microbes important to digestion. Kapper says, “The first sign you will see is a loosening of the stools.”
When excessive fermentation creates a buildup of gas in the gut this is when gas colic can occur. The stretching of the intestinal wall from the gas build up causes considerable pain. A veterinarian should be consulted whenever colic is suspected. Gas colic is often mild, but it can also lead to a twist in the gut that would require surgery.
To keep your horse’s digestive system healthy, the gradual introduction of new forage (including pasture) is very important. The nutritional composition (e.g. the amount of protein, sugars and types of fibre) varies greatly between forage types, and especially between hay and newly growing spring pasture. The bacteria in a horse’s gut need time to adjust to these changes.
“If the horse is turned out 24/7, mother nature will take care of your horse’s gradual introduction to spring pasture,” says Kapper. “The grass grows slowly, and they will continue eating hay on the side.”
For the horse that is stabled, the stable manager must limit the amount of new growth the horse is exposed to in the pasture on a daily basis. First, let the grass paddock grow to approximately six inches. You may start with just one hour of turn out per day on the lush grass pasture before putting them back in their sacrifice paddock or dry lot where they have been all winter. You can slowly increase that by 30 minutes to an hour every other day.
Consider turn-out very early in the morning when NSC concentrations are lower (NSC concentrations increase throughout the day with increasing sunlight). However, if there has been frost overnight, NSC’s will accumulate in the grass. In this instance you will want to restrict turn-out.
Kapper makes a clear distinction between the management of horses diagnosed with metabolic issues and the rest of your herd. The metabolic horse requires a diet low in NSC’s and may be best managed on a dry lot, with hay as the only forage. One must always work with their veterinarian when planning the best options for care of the metabolic horse.
Kapper also discusses weed control and pasture maintenance. Horses generally avoid poisonous plants unless there is nothing else to eat. Being diligent with pasture maintenance pays off not only in the reduction of weeds but in the ability to use your pasture to help fulfill your horses forage needs.
With a high moisture content than hay, there is great value in being able to provide pasture to your horses. It is good for your budget and good for your horse’s overall health if introduced with caution.
CapriCMW Insurance Services Ltd. is the generous sponsor of the Colic Risk Rater Tool (www.equineguelph.ca/colictool) Mike King, of CapriCMW, is a dedicated horseman who believes in the importance of education for horse owners. He addresses why it was so important for his organization to partner with Equine Guelph on this initiative, “Given our decades of experience in insuring horses from coast to coast, we know that colic is one of the highest risk factors for death in the Canadian herd. We can think of no better risk management tool to prevent colic than education.”
Equine Guelph extends a big thank you to Don Kapper for sharing his expertise. There were so many great tips in this video. Here are the top 10:
- Introduce spring grass gradually, increases of 30 minutes to an hour every other day
- NSC concentrations are lower early in the morning except when overnight frost occurs.
- Keep hay in front of your horse at all times. Chew time=saliva= healthy pH in the gut and reduces the chance of digestive issues.
- As little as 4 hrs without forage can have a negative impact on gut health.
- Signs of not enough fibre: loose stools, eating dirt, fences, manes & tails, trees
- Mow weeds as soon as you see them start to flower (in spring about every 3 weeks)
- When mowing pasture set the mower 6 inches from the ground.
- If stools loosen during a change in forage, brewer’s yeast can provide a good culture for microbes in the horse’s gut. Pre-biotics could also prove useful.
- Consult your veterinarian for diet and management advice for metabolic horses, they are very susceptible to issues when starch is even slightly elevated.
- Spring pasture maintenance begins with a soil test checking for an ideal pH between 6.5 & 7. From there you will know what to add in lime and then what to add to your fertilizer.
Don Kapper is a frequent guest speaker in Equine Guelph’s online Nutrition courses and TheHorsePortal.ca online Gut Health and Colic Prevention course.
Don is a retired Equine Nutrition expert with over 37 years of both teaching and work in industry including 24 years with Buckeye Nutrition as their Director of Equine Nutrition to Sr. Vice-President, Cargill Animal Nutrition and 12 years with Progressive Nutrition as their Director of Nutrition and Technical Services. Don began his career as a self-employed Farrier, then served 3 years in the US Army’s Veterinary Service including: service in Viet Nam where he received the Bronze Star and was a member of the Veterinary Unit which received the Presidential Unit Citation, and was the assistant Farrier to the Caisson Horses in Arlington National Cemetery, Ft. Myer, Virginia, attached to The Old Guard.
A graduate of The Ohio State University, Don achieved his credentials, as a Professional Animal Scientist (PAS) in 1996. He was instrumental in development of the first equine computer ration balancing program and introduced the first Ration Balancer feed into the US, in 1986. Don has participated in numerous equine nutrition research studies ranging from Metabolic Bone Disease with The Ohio State University to Performance Electrolytes with the University of Guelph, Canada, where he has been a frequent guest speaker discussing Introduction and Advanced Equine Nutrition, Equine Growth & Development, Exercise Physiology and Reproductive Physiology. For several years he was the exclusive Equine Nutritionist for the North American Sport Horse Registries: 100 Day Stallion Performance Test.
Don and his wife Dee breed, raise and show Hanoverian Sport Horses at their Outer Banks Farm, in Beach City, Ohio.